Healthful and Sanitary Receipts*
or
50 Ways to Boil Food

*(in the time period discussed below the word receipt indicated a list of ingredients and instructions for preparing food as well as a slip of paper proving that payment had been made.)

From 1851 to 1855, Alexis Bιnoist Soyer toured the country promoting his cookbooks and the 'Magic Stove.'  He also masterminded sumptuous banquets and feasts--always maintaining that any food leftover be given to the poor.

In 1855, Soyer became very concerned with the plight of soldiers in the Crimea.  In daily reports in the London Times, it was describing horrendous conditions in the hospitals at Scutari and Balaclava, poor rations, and how men were dying of food poisoning, malnutrition and cholera--let alone damages inflicted by the enemy.

He volunteered at his own vocation and expense to go to The Crimea, to see if he could help matters.  He gained through the offices of The Duchess of Sutherland, Lord Panmure's authority, to correct any matter he saw fit.  Prior to his leaving he invented the 'Soyer's Field Stove' (which the British Army was still using 120 years later.)  He worked in close liaison with Florence Nightingale to correct the dietary and food regimes in the hospitals.

The Morning Chronicle said of Soyer "He saved as many lives through his kitchens as Florence Nightingale did through her wards."  At that time soldiers were given their food rations directly, where they would put metal buttons, or pieces of metal in the meat, so they could recognise their food after it had been cooked, Soyer immediately put a stop to that practice.

Soyer organised that each regiment had a trained chef who'd collect all the rations and prepare food for the men (this gave birth to the Army Catering Corp., many years later,) using his Soyer's Field Stove which could cook food in any weather conditions.  He devised new diets for these regiments.  On his return from the Crimea, Alexis was not a well man.  He wrote his final book Culinary Campaign and saw that published. 

Alexis Soyer died in 1858 and was laid to rest with his wife under the memorial 'Faith' in Kensal Green Cemetary.

The above information is the product of many hours of research in dark and gloomy archives and we would like to extend our most heartfelt gratitude to Mr. F. J. Clement-Lorford for the considerable time and energy he put into researching Alexis Bιnoist Soyer (1810 - 1858).

For more information about Alexis Bιnoist Soyer, or if you wish to contact Mr. Clement-Lorford directly, please see his web page at http://www.soyer.co.uk/.

The following receipts for army cooking are taken from Henry Lee Scott's Military Dictionary: Comprising Technical Definitions; Information onRaising andKeepingTroops; Actual Service, Including Makeshifts and Improved Matιrial; and Law, Government, Regulation, and Administration Relating to Land Forces, starting on page 184.  Colonel H.L. Scott's book, published 1861 in New York, by D. Van Nostrand, 192 Broadway as well as in London, by Trόbner & Co, can be found online at the University of Michgan's Making of America collection.  

Scott got his information from Alexis Soyer's Culinary Campaign.

SOYER'S HOSPITAL DIET
• MUTTON AND BARLEY SOUP for 100 men
• BEEF SOUP
• BEEF TEA.  Receipts for 6 pints
• ESSENCE OF BEEF TEA.  For camp hospitals.
• THICK BEEF TEA
• STRENGTHENING BEEF TEA with calves-foot jelly, or Isinglass.
• MUTTON AND VEAL TEA.
• CHICKEN BROTH
• PLAIN BOlLED RICE
• SWEET RICE
• RICE WITH GRAVY
• PLAIN OATMEAL
• CALVES-FOOT JELLY & JELLY STOCK
• SAGO JELLY
• ARROWROOT MILK
• THICK ARROWROOT PANADA
• ARROWROOT WATER
• RICE WATER
• BARLEY WATER
• SOYER'S PLAIN LEMONADE
• SEMI-CITRIC LEMONADE receipt for Fifty pints
• SOYER'S CHEAP CRIMEAN LEMONADE
• TARTARIC LEMONADE
• CHEAP PLAIN RICE PUDDING for campaigning, in which no eggs or milk are required: important in the field.
• BATTER PUDDING
• BREAD and BUTTER PUDDING
• BREAD PUDDING
• CUSTARD PUDDING
• RICH RICE PUDDING
• STEWED MACARONI
• MACARONI PUDDING
• SAGO PUDDING
• TAPIOCA PUDDING
• BOILED RICE SEMI-CURRIED for the premonitory symptoms of diarrihea
• FIGS and APPLE BEVERAGE
• STEWED FRENCH PLUMS
• FRENCH HERB BROTH
• BROWNING FOR SOUPS, &c
• TOAST-AND-WATER with an assortment of flavour variations
• EFFERVESCENT BEVERAGES
ARMY RECEIPTS
FOR USE WITH
SOYER'S NEW FIELD STOVE, 1856
• ABOUT SOYER"S FIELD STOVE with PICTURE
• HOW TO COOK SALT MEAT FOR FIFTY MEN
• HOW TO SOAK AND PLAIN-BOIL THE RATIONS OF SALT BEEF AND PORK, ON LAND OR AT SEA
• SOYER'S ARMY SOUP FOR FIFTY MEN
• SALT PORK WITH MASHED PEAS, FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN
• STEWED SALT BEEF AND PORK
• SOYER'S FOOD FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN, USING TWO STOVES
• PLAIN IRISH STEW FOR FIFTY MEN
• TO COOK FOR A REGIMENT OF ONE THOUSAND MEN
• SALT PORK AND PUDDINGS WITH CABBAGE AND POTATOES
• TURKISH PILAFF FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN
• BAKING AND ROASTING WITH THE FIELD STOVE
• BAKING IN FIXED OVEN.
• FRENCH BEEF SOUP, OR POT-AU-FEU, camp fashion, for the ordinary canteen-pan.
• SEMI-FRYING, CAMP FASHION, CHOPS, STEAKS, AND ALL KINDS OF MEAT
• TEA FOR EIGHTY MENwhich often constitutes a whole company.
• COFFEE A LA ZOUAVE FOR A MESS OF 10 SOLDIERS, as made in the camp with the canteen saucepan holding 10 pints.
• COFFEE, TURKISH FASHION
• COCOA FOR EIGHTY MEN
• EASY AND EXCELLENT WAY OF COOKING IN EARTHEN PANS  A very favorite and plain dish amongst the convalescent and orderlies at Scutari.
• SERIES OF SMALL RECEIPTS FOR A SQUAD, OUTPOST, OR PICKET OF MENwhich may be increased in proportion of companies.
• CAMP SOUP
• BEEF SOUP with SALT BEEF
• BEEF SOUP with FRESH BEEF
• PEA SOUP
• STEWED FRESH BEEF and RICE
• RECEIPTS FOR THE FRYING-PAN  Those who are fortunate enough to possess a frying-pan will find these receipts very useful.
• SUET DUMPLINGS

Please be aware that if you have made use of any of the following receipts prior to 29th September 2003, there were errors in some of the weights and measures.  On 29th September 2003 these errors were rectified.

SOYER'S HOSPITAL DIETS.

THE IMPORTANCE of WEIGHTS and MEASURES in the ACCOMPANYING RECEIPTS is FULLY RECOGNIZED; IT IS THEREFORE NECESSARY that TROOPS SHOULD BE SUPPLIED with SCALES, and WITH MEASURES for LIQUIDS.

No. 1.---SEMI-STEWED MUTTON and BARLEY SOUP for 100 MEN.

Put in a convenient-sized caldron 130 pints of cold water, 70 lbs. of meat, or about that quantity, 12 lbs. of plain mixed vegetables, (the best that can be obtained,) 9 lbs. 6 oz. of barley, 1 lb. 7 oz. of salt, 1 lb. 4 oz. of flour, 1 lb. 4 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of pepper.  Put all the ingredients into the pan at once, except the flour; set it on the fire, and when beginning to boil, diminish the heat, and simmer gently for two hours and a half; take the joints of meat out, and keep them warm in the orderly's pan; add to the soup your flour, which you have mixed with enough water to form a light batter; stir well together with a large spoon; boil another half-hour, skim off the fat, and serve the soup and meat separate.  The meat may be put back into the soup for a few minutes to warm again prior to serving.  The soup should be stirred now and then while making, to prevent burning or sticking to the bottom of the caldron.  The joints are cooked whole, and afterwards cut up in different messes; being cooked this way, in a rather thick stock, the meat becomes more nutritious.

     Note.---The word "about" is applied to the half and full diet, which varies the weight of the meat; but 1/2 lb. of mutton will always make a pint of good soup: 3 lbs. of mixed preserved vegetables must be used when fresh are not to be obtained, and put in one hour and a half prior to serving, instead of at first; they will then show better in the soup, and still be well done.  All the following receipts may be in creased to large quantities, but by all means closely follow the weight and measure.

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No. 2.---BEEF SOUP.

Proceed the same as for mutton, only leave the meat in till serving, as it will take longer than mutton.  The pieces are not to be above 4 or 5 lbs. weight; and for a change, half rice may be introduced; the addition of 2 lbs more will make it thicker and more nutritive; 1/4 lb. of curry powder will make an excellent change also.  To vary the same, half a pint of burnt sugar water may be added--it will give the soup a very rich brown color.

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No. 3---BEEF TEA.  RECEIPT FOR 6 PINTS.

Cut 3 lbs. of beef into pieces the size of walnuts, and chop up the bones, if any; put it into a convenient-sized kettle, with 1/2 lb. of mixed vegetables, such as onions, leeks, celery, turnips, carrots, (or one or two of these, if all are not to be obtained,) 1 oz. of salt, a little pepper, 1 teaspoonful of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, half a pint of water.  Set it on a sharp fire for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour, stirring now and then with a spoon, till it forms a rather thick gravy at bottom, but not brown: then add 7 pints of hot or cold water, but hot is preferable; when boiling, let it simmer gently for an hour; skim off all the fat, strain it through a sieve, and serve.

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No. 3A.---ESSENCE OF BEEF TEA.  For camp hospitals.

"Quarter pound tin ease of essence."  If in winter set it near the fire to melt; pour the contents in a stewpan and twelve times the case full of water over it, hot or cold; add to it two or three slices of onion, a sprig or two of parsley, a leaf or two of celery, if handy, two teaspoonfuls of salt, one of sugar; pass through a colander and serve.  If required stronger, eight eases of water will suffice, decreasing the seasoning in proportion. In case you have no vegetables, sugar, or pepper, salt alone will do, but the broth will not be so succulent.

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No. 4.---THICK BEEF TEA

Dissolve a good teaspoonful of arrowroot in a gill of water, and pour it into the beef tea twenty minutes before passing through the sieve--it is then ready.

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No. 5.---STRENGTHENING BEEF TEA WITH CALVES-FOOT JELLY, OR ISINGLASS.

Add 1/4 oz. calves-foot gelatine to the above quantity of beef tea previous to serving, when cooking.

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No. 6.---MUTTON AND VEAL TEA.

Mutton and veal will make good tea by proceeding precisely the same as above. The addition of a little aromatic herbs is always desirable.  If no fresh vegetables are at hand, use 2 oz. of mixed preserved vegetables to any of the above receipts.

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No. 7.---CHICKEN BROTH.

Put in a stewpan a fowl, 3 pints of water, 2 teaspoonfuls of rice, 1 teaspoonful of salt, a middle-sized onion, or 2 oz. of mixed vegetables; boil the whole gently for three-quarters of an hour: if an old fowl, simmer from one hour and a half to two hours, adding 1 pint more water; skim off the fat and serve. A small fowl will do. 

     Note.--A light mutton broth may be made precisely the same, by using a pound and a half of scrag of mutton instead of fowl.  For thick mutton broth proceed as for thick beef tea, omitting the rice; a tablespoonful of burnt sugar water will give a rich color to the broth.

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No. 8.---PLAIN BOlLED RICE.

Put two quarts of water in a stewpan, with a teaspoonful of salt; when boiling, add to it 1/2 lb. of rice, well washed; boil for ten minutes, or till each grain becomes rather soft; drain it into a colander, slightly grease the pot with butter, and put the rice back into it; let it swell slowly for about twenty minutes near the fire, or in a slow oven; each grain will then swell up, and be well separated; it is then ready for use.

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No. 9.---SWEET RICE.

Add to the plain boiled rice 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little cinnamon, a quarter of a pint of milk; stir it with a fork, and serve; a little currant jelly or jam may be added to the rice.

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No. 10. ---RICE WITH GRAVY.

Add to the rice 4 tablespoonfuls of the essence of beef, a little butter, if fresh, half a teaspoonful of salt; stir together with a fork, and serve.  A teaspoonful of Soyer's Sultana Sauce, or relish, will make it very wholesome and palatable, as well as invigorating to a fatigued stomach.

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No. 11.---PLAIN OATMEAL.

Put in a pan 1/4 lb. of oatmeal, 1 1/2 oz. of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt, and 3 pints of water; boil slowly for twenty minutes, "stirring continually," and serve.  A quarter of a pint of boiled milk, an ounce of butter, and a little pounded cinnamon or spice added previous to serving is a good variation.  This receipt has been found most useful at the commencement of dysentery by the medical authorities.

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No. 12.---CALVES-FOOT JELLY.

Put in a proper-sized stewpan 2 1/4 oz. of calves-foot gelatine, 4 oz. of white sugar, 4 whites of eggs and shells, the peel of a lemon, the juice of three middle-sized lemons, half a pint of Marsala wine; beat all well together with the egg-beater for a few minutes, then add 4 1/2 pints of cold water; set it on a slow fire, and keep whipping it till boiling.  Set it on the corner of the stove, partly covered with the lid, upon which you place a few pieces of burning charcoal; let it simmer gently for ten minutes, and strain it through a jelly-bag.  It is then ready to put in the ice or some cool place.  Sherry will do if Marsala is not at hand.  For orange jelly use only 1 lemon and 2 oranges.  Any delicate flavor may be introduced.

JELLY STOCK, made from calves' feet, requires to be made the day previous to being used, requiring to be very hard to extract the fat.  Take two calf's feet, cut them up, and boil in three quarts of water; as soon as it boils remove it to the corner of the fire, and simmer for five hours, keeping it skimmed, pass through a hair sieve into a basin, and let it remain until quite hard, then remove the oil and fat, and wipe the top dry. Place in a stewpan half a pint of water, one of sherry, half a pound of lump sugar, the juice of flour lemons, the rinds of two, and the whites and shells of five eggs; whisk until the sugar is melted, then add the jelly, place it on the fire, and whisk until boiling, pass it through a jelly-bag, pouring that back again which comes through first until quite clear; it is then ready for use, by putting it in moulds or glasses. Vary the flavor according to fancy.

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No. 13.---SAGO JELLY.

Put into a pan 3 oz. of sago, 1 1/2 oz. of sugar, half a lemon-peel cut very thin, 1/4 teaspoonful of ground cinnamon, or a small stick of the same; put to it 3 pints of water and a little salt; boil ten minutes, or rather longer, stirring continually, until rather thick, then add a little port, sherry, or Marsala wine; mix well, and serve hot or cold.

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No. 14.---ARROWROOT MILK.

Put into a pan 4 oz. of arrowroot, 3 oz. of sugar, the peel of half a lemon, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 2 1/2 pints of milk; set it on the fire, stir round gently, boil for ten minutes, and serve.  If no lemons at hand, a little essence of any kind will do.  When short of milk, use half water; half an ounce of fresh butter is an improvement before serving.  If required thicker, put a little milk.

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No. 15.---THICK ARROWROOT PANADA.

Put in a pan 5 oz. of arrowroot, 2 1/2 oz. of white sugar, the peel of half a lemon, a quarter of a teaspoonful of salt, 4 pints of water; mix all well, set on the fire, boil for ten minutes; it is then ready.  The juice of a lemon is an improvement; a gill of wine may also be introduced, and 1/2 oz. of calves-foot gelatine previously dissolved in water will be strengthening.  Milk, however, is preferable, if at hand.

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No. 16.---ARROWROOT WATER.

Put into a pan 3 oz. of arrowroot, 2 oz. of white sugar, the peel of a lemon, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 4 pints of water; mix well, set on the fire, boil for ten minutes.  It is then ready to serve either hot or cold.

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No. 17.---RICE WATER.

Put 7 pints of water to boil, add to it 2 ounces of rice washed, 2 oz. of sugar, the peel of two-thirds of a lemon; boil gently for three- quarters of an hour; it will reduce to 5 pints; strain through a colander; it is then ready.  The rice may be left in the beverage or made into a pudding, or by the addition of a little sugar or jam, will be found very good for either children or invalids.

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No. 18.---BARLEY WATER.

Put in a saucepan 7 pints of water, 2 oz. of barley, which stir now and then while boiling; add 2 oz. of white sugar, the rind of half a lemon, thinly peeled; let it boil gently for about two hours, without covering it; pass it through a sieve or colander; it is then ready. The barley and lemon may be left in it.

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No. 19---SOYER'S PLAIN LEMONADE.

Thinly peel the third part of a lemon, which put into a basin with 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar; roll the lemon with your hand upon the table to soften it; cut it into two, lengthwise, squeeze the juice over the peel, &c., stir round for a minute with a spoon to form a sort of syrup; pour over a pint of water, mix well, and remove the pips; it is then ready for use.   If a very large lemon, and full of juice, and very fresh, you may make a pint and a half to a quart, adding sugar and peel in proportion to the increase of water.  The juice only of the lemon and sugar will make lemonade, but will then be deprived of the aroma which the rind contains, the said rind being generally thrown away.

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No. 20.---SEMI-CITRIC LEMONADE.  RECEIPT FOR 50 PINTS.

Put 1 oz. of citric acid to dissolve in a pint of water, peel 20 lemons thinly, and put the peel in a large vessel, with 3 lbs. 2 oz. of white sugar well broken; roll each lemon on the table to soften it, which will facilitate the extraction of the juice; cut them into two, and press out the juice into a colander or sieve, over the peel and sugar, then pour half a pint of water through the colander, so as to leave no juice remaining; triturate the sugar, juice, and peel together for a minute or two with a spoon, so as to form a sort of syrup, and extract the aroma from the peel and the dissolved citric acid; mix all well together, pour on 50 pints of cold water, stir well together; it is then ready.  A little ice in summer is a great addition.

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No. 21.---SOYER'S CHEAP CRIMEAN LEMONADE.

Put into a basin 2 tablespoonfuls of white or brown sugar, 1/2 a tablespoonful of lime juice, mix well together for one minute, add 1 pint of water, and the beverage is ready.  A drop of rum will make a good variation, as lime juice and rum are daily issued to the soldiers.

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No. 22.---TARTARIC LEMONADE.

Dissolve 1 oz. of crystallized tartaric acid in a pint of cold water, which put in a large vessel; when dissolved, add 1 lb. 9 oz. of white or brown sugar--the former is preferable; mix well to form a thick syrup; add to it 24 pints of cold water, slowly mixing well; it is then ready.  It may be strained through either a colander or a jelly-bag; if required very light, add 5 pints more water, and sugar in proportion; if citric acid be used, put only 20 pints of water to each ounce.

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No. 23.---CHEAP PLAIN RICE PUDDING, FOR CAMPAIGNING, in which no eggs or milk are required: important in the field

Put on the fire, in a moderate-sized saucepan, 12 pints of water; when boiling, add to it 1 lb. of rice or 16 tablespoonfuls, 4 oz. of brown sugar or 4 tablespoonfuls, 1 large teaspoonful of salt, and the rind of a lemon thinly peeled; boil gently for half an hour, then strain all the water from the rice, keeping it as dry as possible.  The rice water is then ready for drinking, either warm or cold.  The juice of a lemon may be introduced, which will make it more palatable and refreshing.

THE PUDDING.  Add to the rice 3 oz. of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, half a teaspoonful of pounded cinnamon; stir it on the fire carefully for five or ten minutes; put it in a tin or pie-dish, and bake.  By boiling the rice a quarter of an hour longer, it will be very good to eat without baking.  Cinnamon may be omitted.

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No. 23A.---BATTER PUDDING.

Break two fresh eggs in a basin, beat them well, add one tablespoonful and a half of flour, which beat up with your eggs with a fork until no lumps remain; add a gill of milk, a teaspoonful of salt, butter a teacup or a basin, pour in your mixture, put some water in a stewpan, enough to immerge half way up the cup or basin in water; when boiling, put in your cup or basin and boil twenty minutes, or till your pudding is well set; pass a knife to loosen it, turn out on a plate, pour pounded sugar and a pat of fresh butter over, and serve.  A little lemon, cinnamon, or a drop of any essence may be introduced.  A little light melted butter, sherry, and sugar may be poured over.  If required more delicate, add a little less flour.  It may be served plain.

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No. 24.---BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING.

Butter a tart-dish well and sprinkle some currants all round it, then lay in a few slices of bread and butter; boil one pint of milk, pour it on two eggs well whipped, and then on the bread and butter; bake it in a hot oven for half an hour.  Currants may be omitted.

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No. 25.---BREAD PUDDING.

Boil one pint of milk, with a plece of cinnamon and lemon-peel; pour it on two ounces of bread crumbs; then add two eggs, half an ounce of currants, and a little sugar:  Steam it in a buttered mould for one hour.

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No. 26.---CUSTARD PUDDING.

Boil one pint of milk, with a small piece of lemon-peel and half a bay-leaf, for three minutes; then pour these on to three eggs, mix it with one ounce of sugar well together, and pour it into a buttered mould: steam it twenty-five minutes in a stewpan with some water, turn out on a plate and serve.

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No. 27.---RICH RICE PUDDING.

Put in 1/2 lb. of rice in a stewpan, washed, 3 pints of milk, 1 pint of water, 3 oz. of sugar, 1 lemon peel, 1 oz. of fresh butter; boil gently half an hour, or until the rice is tender; add 4 eggs, well beaten, mix well, and bake quickly for half an hour, and serve: it may be steamned if preferred.

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No. 28.---STEWED MACARONI.

Put in a stewpan 2 quarts of water, half a tablespoonful of salt, 2 oz. of butter; set on the fire; when boiling, add 1 lb. of macaroni, broken up rather small; when boiled very soft, throw off the water; mix well into the macaroni a tablespoonful of flour, add enough milk to make it of the consistency of thin melted butter; boil gently twenty minutes; add in a tablespoonful of either brown or white sugar, or honey, and serve.  A little cinnamon, nutmeg, lemon-peel, or orange-flower water may be introduced to impart a flavor; stir quick.  A gill of milk or cream may now be thrown in three minutes before serving.  Nothing can be more light and nutritious than macaroni done this way.  If no milk, use water.

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No. 29.---MACARONI PUDDING.

Put 2 pints of water to boil, add to it 2 oz. of macaroni, broken in small pieces; boil till tender, drain off the water and add half a tablespoonful of flour, 2 oz. of white sugar, a quarter of a pint of milk, and boil together for ten minutes; beat an egg up, pour it to the other ingredients, a nut of butter; mix well and bake, or steam.  It can be served plain, and may be flavored with either cinnamon, lemon, or other essences, as orange-flower water, vanilla, &c.

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No. 30.---SAGO PUDDING.

Put in a pan 4 oz. of sago, 2 oz. of sugar, half a lemon-peel or a little cinnamon, a small pat of fresh butter, if handy, half a pint of milk; boil for a few minutes, or until rather thick, stirring all the while; beat up 2 eggs and mix quickly with the same; it is then ready for either baking or steaming, or may be served plain.

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No. 31.---TAPIOCA PUDDING.

Put in a pan 2 oz. of tapioca, 1 1/2 pint of milk, 1 oz. of white or brown sugar, a little salt, set on the fire, boil gently for fifteen minutes, or until the tapioca is tender, stirring now and then to prevent its sticking to the bottom, or burning; then add two eggs well beaten; steam or bake, and serve.  It will take about twenty minutes steaming, or a quarter of an hour baking slightly.  Flavor with either lemon, cinnamon, or any other essence.

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No. 32.---BOILED RICE SEMI-CURRIED, FOR THE PREMONITORY SYMPTOMS OF DIARRIHEA.

Put 1 quart of water in a pot or saucepan; when boiling, wash a 1/2 lb. of rice and throw it into the water; boil fast for ten minutes; drain your rice in a colander, put it back in the saucepan, which you have slightly greased with butter; let it swell slowly near the fire, or in a slow oven till tender; each grain will then be light and well separated.  Add to the above a small tablespoonful of aromatic sauce, called "Soyer's Relish or Sultana Sauce," with a quarter of a teaspoonful of curry powder; mix together with a fork lightly, and serve. This quantity will be sufficient for two or three people, accord ing to the prescriptions of the attending physician.

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No. 33.---FIGS AND APPLE BEVERAGE.

Enave 2 quarts of water boiling, into which throw 6 dry figs previously opened, and 2 apples, cut into six or eight slices each; let the whole boil together twenty minutes; then pour them into a basin to cool; pass through a sieve; drain the figs, which will be good to eat with a little sugar or jam.

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No. 34.---STEWED FRENCH PLUMS.

Put 12 large or 18 small-size French plums, soak them for half an hour, put in a stewpan with a spoonful of brown sugar, a gill of water, a little cinnamon, and some thin rind of lemon; let them stew gently twenty minutes, then put them in a basin till cold with a little of the juice.  A small glass of port, sherry, or claret is a very good addition.  The syrup is excellent.

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No. 35.---FRENCH HERB BROTH.

This is a very favorite beverage in France, as well with people in health as with invalids, especially in spring, when the herbs are young and green.  Put a quart of water to boil, having previously prepared about 40 leaves of sorrel, a cabbage lettuce, and 10 sprigs of chervil, the whole well washed; when the water is boiling, throw in the herbs, with the addition of a teaspoonful of salt, and l/4 oz. of fresh butter; cover the saucepan close, and let simmer a few minutes, then strain it through a sieve or colander.  This is to be drunk cold, especially in the spring of the year, after the change from winter.  I generally drink about a quart per day for a week at that time; but if for sick people, it must be made less strong of herbs, and taken a little warm.  To prove that it is wholesome, we have only to refer to the instinct which teaches dogs to eat grass at that season of the year.  I do not pretend to say that it would suit persons in every malady, because the doctors are to decide upon the food and beverage of their patients, and study its changes as well as change their medicines; but I repeat that this is most useful and refreshing for the blood.

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No. 36.---BROWNING FOR SOUPS, &C.

Put 1/4 lb. of moist sugar into an iron pan and melt it over a moderate fire till quite black, stirring it continually, which will take about twenty-five minutes: it must color by degrees, as too sudden a heat will make it bitter; then add 2 quarts of water, and in ten minutes the sugar will be dissolved.  You may then bottle it for use.  It will keep good for a month, and will always be found very useful.

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No. 37.---TOAST-AND-WATER.

Cut a piece of crusty bread, about a 1/4 lb. in weight, place it upon a toasting-fork, and hold it about six inches from the fire; turn it often, and keep moving it gently until of a light-yellow color, then place it nearer the fire, and when of a good brown chocolate color, put it in a jug and pour over 3 pints of boiling water; cover the jug until cold, then strain it into a clean jug, and it is ready for use.  Never leave the toast in it, for in summer it would cause fermentation in a short time.

     Baked Apple Toast-and-Water.---A piece of apple, slowly toasted till it gets quite black and added to the above, makes a very nice and refreshing drink for invalids.

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     Apple Rice Water.---Half a pound of rice, boiled in the above until in pulp, passed through a colander, and drunk when cold.  All kinds of fruit may be done the same way.  Figs and French plums are excellent; also raisins.  A little ginger, if approved of, may be used.

     Apple Barley Water.---A quarter of a pound of pearl barley instead of toast added to the above, and boil for one hour, is also a very nice drink.

     Citronade.---Put a gallon of water on to boil, cut up one pound of apples, each one into quarters, two lemons in thin slices, put them in the water, and boil them until they can be pulped, pass the liquor through a colander, boil it up again. with half a pound of brown sugar, skim, and bottle for use, taking care not to cork the bottle, and keep it in a cool place. 

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     For Spring Drink.---Rhubarb, in the same quantities, and done in the same way as apples, adding more sugar, is very cooling.  Also green gooseberries. 

     For Summer Drink.---One pound of red currants, bruised with some raspberry, half a pound of sugar added to a gallon of cold water, well stirred, and allowed to settle.  The juice of a lemon.

     Mulberry.---The same, adding a little lemon-peel.  A little cream of tartar or citric acid added to these renders them more cooling in summer and spring.

     Plain Lemonade.---Cut in very thin slices three lemons, put them in a basin, add half a pound of sugar, either white or brown; bruise all together, add a gallon of water, and stir well.  It is then ready.

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     French Plum Water.---Boil 3 pints of water; add in 6 or 8 dried plums previously split, 2 or 3 slices of lemon, a spoonful of honey or sugar; boil half an hour, and serve. 

     For Fig, Date, and Raisin Water, proceed as above, adding the juice of half a lemon to any of the above.  If for fig water, use 6 figs.  Any quantity of the above fruits may be used with advantage in rice, barley, or arrowroot water.

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     EFFERVESCENT BEVERAGES.

     Raspberry Water.---Put 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar into a large glass, pour in half a pint of water; mix well. 

     Pine-Apple Syrup.---Three tablespoonfuls to a pint. 

     Currant Syrup.---Proceed the same. 

     Syrup of Orgeat.---The same.

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FIELD and BARRACK COOKERY for the ARMY, by the USE of SOYER'S NEW FIELD STOVE, NOW ADOPTED by the  MILITARY AUTHORITIES (1856)

Each stove will consume not more than from 12 to 15 lbs. of fuel, and allow ing 20 stoves to a regiment, the consumption would be 300 lbs. per thousand men.  Coal will burn with the same advantage.  

Salt beef, pork, Irish stew, stewed beef, tea, coffee, cocoa, &c., can be prepared in these stoves, and with the same economy.  

They can also be fitted with an apparatus for baking, roasting, and steaming.

The Soyer Field Stove

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No. 1.---RECEIPT TO COOK SALT MEAT FOR 50 MEN

1.  Put 50 lbs. of meat in the boiler.

2.  Fill with water, and let soak all night.

3.  Next morning wash the meat well

4.  Fill with fresh water, and boil gently three hours, and serve.  Skim off the fat, which, when cold, is an excellent substitute for butter.

For salt pork proceed as above or boil half beef--and half pork--the pieces of beef may be smaller than the pork, requiring a little longer time doing.

Dumplings, (No. 21), may be added to either pork, or beef in proportion; and when pork is properly soaked, the liquor will make a very good soup.

The large yellow peas, as used by the navy, may be introduced; it is important to have them, as they are a great improvement.

When properly soaked, French haricot beans and lentils may also be used to advantage.

By the addition of 5 pounds of split peas, half a pound of brown sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of pepper, 10 onions; simmer gently till in pulp, remove the fat and serve; broken biscuit may be introduced.  This will make an excellent mess.

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No. 1A.---How TO SOAK AND PLAIN-BOIL THE RATIONS OF SALT BEEF AND PORK, ON LAND OR AT SEA.

To each pound of meat allow about a pint of water.  Do not have the pieces above 3 or 4 lbs. in weight.  Let it soak for 7 or 8 hours, or all night if possible.  Wash each piece well with your hand in order to extract as much salt as possible.  It is then ready for cooking.  If less time be allowed, cut the pieces smaller and proceed the same, or parboil the meat for 20 minutes in the above quantity of water, which throw off and add fresh.  Meat may be soaked in sea water, but by all means boiled in fresh when possible.  I should advise, at sea, to have a perforated iron box made, large enough to contain half a ton or more of meat, which box will ascend and descend by pulleys; have also a frame made on which the box might rest when lowered overboard, the meat being placed outside the ship on a level with the water, the night before using; the water beating against the meat through the perforations will extract all the salt.  Meat may be soaked in sea water, but by all means washed.

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NO 2.---SOYER'S ARMY SOUP FOR 50 MEN.

1. Put in the boiler 60 pints, 71/2 gallons, or 5 1/2 camp kettles of water.

2. Add to it 50 lbs. of meat, either beef or mutton.

3. The rations of preserved or fresh vegetables.

4. Ten small tablespoonfuls of salt.

5. Simmer three hours and serve.  

When rice is issued, put it in when boiling.  Three pounds will be sufficient.  About eight pounds of fresh vegetables.  Or four squares from a cake of preserved vegetables.  A tablespoonful of pepper, if handy.  Skim off the fat, which, when cold, is an excellent substitute for butter.

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No. 2A.---SALT PORK WITH MASHED PEAS, FOR 100 MEN.

Put in two stoves 50 lbs. of pork each, divide 24 lbs. in four puddingcloths, rather loosely tied; putting to boil at the same time as your pork, let all boil gently till done, say about two hours; take out the pudding and peas, put all the meat in one caldron, remove the liquor from the other pan, turning back the peas in it, add two teaspoonfuls of pepper, a pound of the fat, and with the wooden spatula smash the peas and serve both.  The addition of about half a pound of flour, and two quarts of liquor, boiled ten minutes, makes a great improvement.  Six sliced onions, fried and added to it, make it very delicate.

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No. 3.---STEWED SALT BEEF AND PORK.

For a company of one hundred men, or a regiment of one thousand men.  Put in a boiler, of well soaked beef 30 lbs., cut in pieces of a quarter of a pound each, 20 lbs. of pork, 1 1/2 lb. of sugar, 8 lbs. of onions, sliced, 25 quarts of water, 4 lbs. of rice.  Simmer gently for three hours, skim the fat off the top, and serve.  

     Note.--How to soak the meat for the above mess:---Put 50 lbs. of meat in each boiler, having filled them with water, and let soak all night; and prior to using it, wash it and squeeze with your hands, to extract the salt.  In case the meat is still too salt, boil it for twenty minutes, throw away the water, and put fresh to your stew.  By closely following the above receipt you will have an excellent dish.

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No. 4.---SOYER'S FOOD FOR 100 MEN, USING TWO STOVES.

Cut or chop 50 lbs. of fresh beef in pieces of about 1/4 lb. each; put in the boiler, with 10 tablespoonfuls of salt, two tablespoonfuls of pepper, four tablespoonfuls of sugar, onions 7 lbs. cut in slices: light the fire now, and then stir the meat with a spatula, let it stew from 20 to 30 minutes, or till it forms a thick gravy, then add a pound and a half of flour; mix well together, put in the boiler 18 quarts of water, stir well for a minute or two, regulate the stove to a moderate heat, and let simmer for about two hours.  Mutton, pork, or veal can be stewed in a similar manner, but will take half an hour less cooking. 

     Note.---A pound of rice may be added with great advantage, ditto plain dumplings, ditto potatoes, as well as mixed vegetables.  For a regiment of 1,000 men use 20 stoves.

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No. 5.---PLAIN IRISH STEW FOR 50 MEN.

Cut 50 lbs. of mutton into pieces of a quarter of a pound each, put them in the pan, add 8 lbs. of large onions, 12 lbs. of whole potatoes, 8 tablespoonfuls of salt, 3 tablespoonfuls of pepper; cover all with water, giving about half a pint to each pound; then light the fire; one hour and a half of gentle ebullition will make a most excellent stew; mash some of the potatoes to thicken the gravy, and serve.  Fresh beef, veal, or pork will also make a good stew.  Beef takes two hours doing.  Dumplings may beadded half an hour before done.

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No. 6.---To Cook FOR A REGIMENT OF 1000 MEN.

Place twenty stoves in a row, in the open air or under cover.  Put 30 quarts of water in each boiler, 50 lbs. of ration meat, 4 squares from a cake of dried vegetables--or, if fresh mixed vegetables are issued, 12 lbs. weight--10 small tablespoonfuls of salt, 1 ditto of pepper; light the fire, simmer gently from two hours to two hours and a half, skim the fat from the top, and serve.  It will require only four cooks per regiment, the provisions and water being carried to the kitchen by fatigue parties; the kitchen being central, instead of the kitchen going to each company, each company sends two men to the kitchen with a pole to carry the meat.

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No. 7.---SALT PORK AND PUDDINGS WITH CABBAGE AND POTATOES.

Put 25 lbs. of salt pork in each boiler, with 50 lbs. from which you have extracted the large bones, cut in dice, and made into puddings; when on the boil, put five puddings in each, boil rather fast for two hours.  You have peeled 12 lbs. of potatoes and put in a net in each caldron; put also 2 winter cabbages in nets, three-quarters of an hour before your pudding is done; divide the pork, pudding, and cabbage, in proportion, or let fifty of the men have pudding that day and meat the other; remove the fat, and serve.  The liquor will make very good soup by adding peas or rice, as No. 1.  For the pudding paste put one-quarter of a pound of dripping, or beef or mutton suet, to every pound of flour you use; roll your paste for each half an inch thick, put a pudding-cloth in a basin, flour round, lay in your paste, add your meat in proportion; season with pepper and a minced onion; close your pudding in a cloth, and boil.  This receipt is more applicable to barrack and public institutions than a camp.  Fresh meat of any kind may be done the same, and boiled with either salt pork or beef.

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No. 8.---TURKISH PILAFF FOR 100 MEN.

Put in the caldron 2 lbs. of fat, which you have saved from salt pork, add to it 4 lbs. of peeled and sliced onions; let them fry in the fat for about ten minutes; add in then 12 lbs. of rice, cover the rice over with water, the rice being submerged two inches, add to it 7 tablespoonfuls of salt, and 1 of pepper; let simmer gently for about an hour, stirring it with a spatula occasionally to prevent it burning, but when commencing to boil, a very little fire ought to be kept under.  Each grain ought to be swollen to the full size of rice, and separate.  In the other stove put fat and onions the same quantity with the same seasoning; cut the flesh of the mutton, veal, pork, or beef from the bone, cut in dice of about 2 oz. each, put in the pan with the fat and onions, set it going with a very sharp fire, having put in 2 quarts of water; steam gently, stirring occasionally for about half an hour, till forming rather a rich thick gravy.  When both the rice and meat are done, take half the rice and mix with the meat, and then the remainder of the meat and rice, and serve.  Save the bones for soup for the following day.  Salt pork or beef, well soaked, may be used--omitting the salt.  Any kind of vegetables may be frizzled with the onions.

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No. 9.---BAKING AND ROASTING WITH THE FIELD STOVE.

By the removal of the caldron, and the application of a false bottom put over the fire, bread bakes extremely well in the oven, as well as meat, potatoes, puddings, &c.  Bread might be baked in oven at every available op portunity at a trifling cost of fuel.  The last experiment I made with one was a piece of beef weighing about 25 lbs., a large Yorkshire pudding, and about 10 lbs. of potatoes, the whole doing at considerably under one pennyworth of fuel, being a mixture of coal and coke; the whole was done to perfection, and of a nice brown color.  Any kind of meat would, of course, roast the same.

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     Baking in fixed Oven.---In barracks, or large institutions, where an oven is handy, I would recommend that a long iron trough be made, four feet in length, with a two-story movable grating in it, the meat on the top of the upper one giving a nice elevation to get the heat from the roof, and the potatoes on the grating under, and a Yorkshire pud ding at the bottom.  Four or five pieces of meat may be done on one trough.  If no pudding is made, add a quart more water.

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No. 10.---FRENCH BEEF SOUP, OR POT-AU-FEU, CAMP FASHION, FOR THE ORDINARY CANTEEN-PAN.

Put in the canteen saucepan 6 lbs. of beef, cut in two or three pieces, bones included; 3/4 lb. of plain mixed vegetables, as onions, carrots, turnips, celery, leeks, or such of these as can be obtained, or 3 oz. of preserved in cakes, as now given to the troops; 3 teaspoonfuls of salt, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 teaspoonful of sugar, if handy; 8 pints of water, let it boil gently three hours, remove some of the fat, and serve.  The addition of 1 1/2 lb. of bread cut into slices, or 1 lb. of broken biscuit, well soaked in the broth, will make a very nutritious soup; skimming is not required.

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No. 11.---SEMI-FRYING, CAMP FASHION, CHOPS, STEAKS, AND ALL KINDS OF MEAT.

If it is difficult to broil to perfection, it is considerably more so to cook meat of any kind in a frying-pan.  Place your pan on the fire for a minute or so, wipe it very clean; when the pan is very hot, add in it either fat or butter, but the fat from salt and ration meat is preferable; the fat will immediately get very hot; then add the meat you are going to cook, turn it several times to have it equally done; season to each pound a small teaspoonful of salt, quarter that of pepper, and serve.  Any sauce or maξtre-d'hτtel butter may be added.  A few fried onions in the remaining fat, with the addition of a little flour to the onion, a quarter of a pint of water, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, a few chopped pickles or picalilly, will be very relishing.

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No. 11A.---TEA FOR 80 MEN, which often constitutes a whole company.

One boiler will, with ease, make tea for eighty men, allowing a pint each man.  Put forty quarts of water to boil, place the rations of tea in a fine net, very loose, or in a large perforated ball; give one minute to boil, take out the fire, if too much, shut down the cover; in ten minutes it is ready to serve.

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No. 12.---COFFEE A LA ZOUAVE FOR A MESS OF 10 SOLDIERS, as made in the camp, with the canteen saucepan holding 10 pints.

Put 9 pints of water into a canteen saucepan on the fire; when boiling add 7 1/2 oz. of coffee, which forms the ration, mix them well together with a spoon or a piece of wood, leave on the fire for a few minutes longer, or until just beginning to boil.  Take it off and pour in 1 pint of cold water, let the whole remain for ten minutes or a little longer.  The dregs of the coffee will fall to the bottom, and your coffee will be clear.  Pour it from one vessel to the other, leaving the dregs at the bottom, add your ration sugar or 2 teaspoonfuls to the pint; if any milk is to be had, make 2 pints of coffee less; add that quantity of milk to your coffee, the former may be boiled previously, and serve.  This is a very good way for making coffee even in any family, especially a numerous one, using 1 oz. to the quart if required stronger.  For a company of eighty men use the field-stove and four times the quantity of ingredients.

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No. 13.---COFFEE, TURKISH FASHION.

When the water is about to boil add the coffee and sugar, mix well as above, let it boil, and serve.  The grounds of coffee will in a few seconds fall to the bottom of the cups.  The Turks wisely leave it there, I would advise every one in camp to do the same.

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No 14.---COCOA FOR 80 MEN

Break eighty portions of ration cocoa in rather small pieces, put them in the boiler, with five or six pints of water, light the fire, stir the cocoa round till melted, and forming a pulp not too thick, preventing any lumps forming, add to it the remaining water, hot or cold; add the ration sugar, and when just boiling, it is ready for serving.  If short of cocoa in campaigning, put about sixty rations, and when in pulp, add half a pound of flour or arrowroot.

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EASY AND EXCELLENT WAY OF COOKING IN EARTHEN PANS.

A very favorite and plain dish amongst the convalescent and orderlies at Scutari was the following:-

Cut any part of either beef (cheek or tail), veal, mutton, or pork, in fact any hard part of the animal, in 4-oz. slices; have ready for each 4 or 5 onions and 4 or 5 pounds of potatoes cut in slices; put a layer of potatoes at the bottom of the pan, then a layer of meat, season to each pound 1 teaspoonful of salt, quarter one of pepper, and some onion you have already minced; then lay in layers of meat and potatoes alternately till full; put in 2 pints of water, lay on the lid, close the bar, lock the pot, bake two hours, and serve.  Remove some of the fat from the top, if too much; a few dumplings, as No. 21, in it will also be found excellent.  By adding over each layer a little flour it makes a rich thick sauce.  Half fresh meat and salt ditto will also be found excellent.

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SERIES OF SMALL RECEIPTS FOR A SQUAD, OUTPOST, OR PICKET OF MEN, which may be increased in proportion of companies.

No. 15.---Camp Soup.

Put half a pound of salt pork in a saucepan, two ounces of rice, two pints and a half of cold water, and, when boiling, let simmer another hour, stirring once or twice; break in six ounces of biscuit, let soak ten minutes; it is then ready, adding one teaspoonful of sugar, and a quarter one of pepper, if handy.

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No. 16.---Beef Soup.

Proceed as above, boil an hour longer, adding a pint more water. 

     Note.--Those who can obtain any of the following vegetables will find them a great improvement to the above soups:

-Add four ounces of either onions, carrots, celery, turnips, leeks, greens, cabbage, or potatoes, previously well washed or peeled, or any of these mixed to make up four ounces, putting them in the pot with the meat.  I have used the green tops of leeks and the leaf of celery as well as the stem, and found that for stewing they are preferable to the white part for flavor.

The meat being generally salted with rock salt, it ought to be well scraped and washed, or even soaked in water a few hours if convenient; but if the last cannot be done, and the meat is therefore too salt, which would spoil the broth, parboil it for twenty minutes in water, before using for soup, taking care to throw this water away.

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No. 17.---For fresh beef proceed, as far as the cooking goes, as for salt beef, adding a teaspoonful of salt to the water.

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No. 18.---Pea Soup.

Put in your pot half a pound of salt pork, half a pint of peas, three pints of water, one teaspoonful of sugar, half one of pepper, four ounces of vegetables, cut in slices, if to be had; boil gently two hours, or until the peas are tender, as some require boiling longer than others--and serve.

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No 19.---Stewed Fresh Beef and Rice.

Put an ounce of fat in a pot, cut half a pound of meat in large dice, add a teaspoonful of salt, half one of sugar, all onion sliced; put on the fire to stew for fifteen minutes, stirring occasionally, then add two ounces of rice, a pint of water; stew gently till done, and serve.  Any savory herb will improve the flavor.  Fresh pork, veal, or mutton may be done the same way, and half a pound of potatoes used instead of the rice, and as rations are served out for three days, the whole of the provisions may be cooked at once.

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No. 20.---RECEIPTS FOR THE FRYING-PAN.

Those who are fortunate enough to possess a frying-pan will find the following receipts very useful:-

Cut in small dice half a pound of solid meat, keeping the bones for soup; put your pan, which should be quite clean, on the fire; when hot through, add an ounce of fat, melt it and put in the meat, season with half a teaspoonful of salt; fry for ten minutes, stirring now and then; add a teaspoonful of flour, mix all well, put in half a pint of water, let simmer for fifteen minutes, pour over a biscuit previously soaked, and serve.  The addition of a little pepper and sugar, if handy, is an improvement, as is also a pinch of cayenne, curry powder or spice; sauces and pickles used in small quantities would be very relishing; these are articles which will keep for any length of time.  As fresh meat is not easily obtained, any of the cold salt meat may be dressed as above, omitting the salt, and only requires warming; or, for a change, boil the meat plainly, or with greens, or cabbage, or dumplings, as for beef; then the next day cut what is left in small dice--say four ounces--put in a pan an ounce of fat; when very hot pour in the following:

-Mix in a basin a tablespoonful of flour, moisten with water to form the consistency of thick melted butter, then pour it in the pan, letting it remain for one or two minutes, or until set; put in the meat, shake the pan to loosen it, turn it over, let it remain a few minutes longer, and serve.

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To cook bacon, chops, steaks, slices of any kind of meat, salt or fresh sausages, black puddings, &c.: 

Make the pan very hot, having wiped it clean, add in fat, dripping, butter, or oil, about an ounce of either; put in the meat, turn three or four times, and season with salt and pepper.  A few minutes will do it.  If the meat is salt, it must be well soaked previously.

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No. 21.---SUET DUMPLINGS.

Take half a pound of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter teaspoonful of pepper, a quarter of a pound of chopped fat pork or beef suet, eight tablespoonfuls of water, mixed well together.  It will form a thick paste, and when formed, divide it into six or eight pieces, which roll in flour, and boil with the meat for twenty minutes to half an hour.  Little chopped onion or aromatic herbs will give it a flavor.  

     A plainer way, when Fat is not to be obtained.--Put the same quantity of flour and seasoning in a little more water, and make it softer, and divide it into sixteen pieces; boil about ten minutes.  Serve round the meat.  One plain pudding may be made of the above, also peas and rice pudding thus:--One pound of peas well tied in a cloth, or rice ditto with the beef.  It will form a good pudding.  The following in gredients may be added: a little salt, sugar, pepper, chopped onions, aromatic herbs, and two ounces of chopped fat will make these puddings palatable and delicate

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updated 29 Sept 2003