From 1851 to 1855,
Alexis Bιnoist Soyer toured the country promoting his cookbooks
and the 'Magic Stove.' He also masterminded sumptuous
banquets and feasts--always maintaining that any food leftover be
given to the poor.
In 1855, Soyer became
very concerned with the plight of soldiers in the Crimea. In daily
reports in the London Times, it was describing horrendous
conditions in the hospitals at Scutari and Balaclava, poor
rations, and how men were dying of food poisoning, malnutrition and
cholera--let alone damages inflicted by the enemy.
He volunteered at his
own vocation and expense to go to The Crimea, to see if he could
help matters. He gained through the offices of The Duchess
of Sutherland, Lord Panmure's authority, to correct any matter he
saw fit. Prior to his leaving he invented the 'Soyer's Field
Stove' (which the British Army was still using 120 years
later.) He worked in close liaison with Florence Nightingale
to correct the dietary and food regimes in the hospitals.
Chronicle said of Soyer "He saved as many lives through
his kitchens as Florence Nightingale did through her wards." At that time soldiers were given their food
rations directly, where they would put metal buttons, or pieces of
metal in the meat, so they could recognise their food after it had
been cooked, Soyer immediately put a stop to that practice.
Soyer organised that
each regiment had a trained chef who'd collect all the rations and
prepare food for the men (this gave birth to the Army Catering
Corp., many years later,) using his Soyer's Field Stove which
could cook food in any weather conditions. He devised new
diets for these regiments. On his return from the Crimea,
Alexis was not a well man. He wrote his final book Culinary
Campaign and saw that published.
Alexis Soyer died in
1858 and was laid to rest with his wife under the memorial 'Faith'
in Kensal Green Cemetary.
The above information
is the product of many hours of research in dark and gloomy
archives and we would like to extend our most heartfelt gratitude
to Mr. F. J. Clement-Lorford for the considerable time and energy
he put into researching Alexis Bιnoist Soyer (1810 - 1858).
more information about Alexis Bιnoist Soyer, or if you wish to contact Mr.
directly, please see his web page at http://www.soyer.co.uk/.
receipts for army cooking are taken from Henry Lee Scott's Military
Dictionary: Comprising Technical Definitions; Information onRaising
andKeepingTroops; Actual Service, Including Makeshifts and Improved
Matιrial; and Law, Government, Regulation, and Administration Relating
to Land Forces, starting
on page 184. Colonel H.L. Scott's book, published 1861 in New
York, by D. Van Nostrand, 192 Broadway as well as in London, by Trόbner
& Co, can be found online at the
University of Michgan's Making of America collection.
Scott got his
information from Alexis Soyer's Culinary Campaign.
FOR USE WITH
SOYER'S NEW FIELD STOVE, 1856
SOYER"S FIELD STOVE with PICTURE
||HOW TO COOK SALT MEAT FOR
||HOW TO SOAK AND PLAIN-BOIL THE RATIONS OF SALT BEEF AND PORK, ON LAND OR
||SOYER'S ARMY SOUP FOR
SALT PORK WITH MASHED PEAS, FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN
BEEF AND PORK
FOOD FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN, USING TWO STOVES
STEW FOR FIFTY MEN
A REGIMENT OF ONE THOUSAND MEN
AND PUDDINGS WITH CABBAGE AND POTATOES
PILAFF FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN
ROASTING WITH THE FIELD STOVE
IN FIXED OVEN.
BEEF SOUP, OR POT-AU-FEU, camp fashion, for the ordinary
||SEMI-FRYING, CAMP FASHION, CHOPS, STEAKS, AND ALL KINDS OF
EIGHTY MEN, which
often constitutes a whole company.
LA ZOUAVE FOR A MESS OF 10 SOLDIERS, as
made in the camp with the canteen saucepan holding 10
||EASY AND EXCELLENT
WAY OF COOKING IN EARTHEN PANS A very favorite and plain dish
amongst the convalescent and orderlies at Scutari.
||SERIES OF SMALL
RECEIPTS FOR A SQUAD, OUTPOST, OR PICKET OF MEN, which
may be increased in proportion of companies.
SOUP with SALT BEEF
SOUP with FRESH BEEF
FRESH BEEF and RICE
FOR THE FRYING-PAN Those who are fortunate enough to possess a
frying-pan will find these receipts very useful.
Please be aware
that if you have made use of any of the following receipts prior to 29th
September 2003, there were errors in some of the weights and
measures. On 29th September 2003 these errors were rectified.
of WEIGHTS and MEASURES in the ACCOMPANYING
RECEIPTS is FULLY RECOGNIZED; IT IS THEREFORE NECESSARY that TROOPS
SHOULD BE SUPPLIED with SCALES, and WITH MEASURES for LIQUIDS.
MUTTON and BARLEY SOUP for 100 MEN.
Put in a
convenient-sized caldron 130 pints of cold water, 70 lbs. of meat, or
about that quantity, 12 lbs. of plain mixed vegetables, (the best that
can be obtained,) 9 lbs. 6 oz. of barley, 1 lb. 7 oz. of salt, 1 lb. 4
oz. of flour, 1 lb. 4 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of pepper. Put all the
ingredients into the pan at once, except the flour; set it on the
fire, and when beginning to boil, diminish the heat, and simmer gently
for two hours and a half; take the joints of meat out, and keep them
warm in the orderly's pan; add to the soup your flour, which you have
mixed with enough water to form a light batter; stir well together
with a large spoon; boil another half-hour, skim off the fat, and
serve the soup and meat separate. The meat may be put back into the
soup for a few minutes to warm again prior to serving. The soup should
be stirred now and then while making, to prevent burning or sticking
to the bottom of the caldron. The joints are cooked whole, and
afterwards cut up in different messes; being cooked this way, in a
rather thick stock, the meat becomes more nutritious.
"about" is applied to the half and full diet, which varies
the weight of the meat; but 1/2 lb. of mutton will always make a pint
of good soup: 3 lbs. of mixed preserved vegetables must be used when
fresh are not to be obtained, and put in one hour and a half prior
to serving, instead of at first; they will then show better in the
soup, and still be well done. All the following receipts may be in
creased to large quantities, but by all means closely follow the
weight and measure.
Proceed the same
as for mutton, only leave the meat in till serving, as it will take
longer than mutton. The pieces are not to be above 4 or 5 lbs. weight;
and for a change, half rice may be introduced; the addition of 2 lbs
more will make it thicker and more nutritive; 1/4 lb. of curry powder
will make an excellent change also. To vary the same, half a pint of
burnt sugar water may be added--it will give the soup a very rich brown
3---BEEF TEA. RECEIPT FOR 6 PINTS.
Cut 3 lbs. of
beef into pieces the size of walnuts, and chop up the bones, if any;
put it into a convenient-sized kettle, with 1/2 lb. of mixed vegetables,
such as onions, leeks, celery, turnips, carrots, (or one or two of
these, if all are not to be obtained,) 1 oz. of salt, a little pepper,
1 teaspoonful of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, half a pint of water. Set it
on a sharp fire for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour, stirring now
and then with a spoon, till it forms a rather thick gravy at bottom,
but not brown: then add 7 pints of hot or cold water, but hot is
preferable; when boiling, let it simmer gently for an hour; skim off
all the fat, strain it through a sieve, and serve.
BEEF TEA. For camp hospitals.
pound tin ease of essence." If in winter set it near the fire to
melt; pour the contents in a stewpan and twelve times the case full of
water over it, hot or cold; add to it two or three slices of onion, a
sprig or two of parsley, a leaf or two of celery, if handy, two
teaspoonfuls of salt, one of sugar; pass through a colander and serve.
If required stronger, eight eases of water will suffice, decreasing
the seasoning in proportion. In case you have no vegetables, sugar, or
pepper, salt alone will do, but the broth will not be so succulent.
Dissolve a good
teaspoonful of arrowroot in a gill of water, and pour it into the beef
tea twenty minutes before passing through the sieve--it is then ready.
5.---STRENGTHENING BEEF TEA WITH CALVES-FOOT JELLY, OR ISINGLASS.
Add 1/4 oz.
calves-foot gelatine to the above quantity of beef tea previous to
serving, when cooking.
Mutton and veal
will make good tea by proceeding precisely the same as above. The
addition of a little aromatic herbs is always desirable. If no fresh
vegetables are at hand, use 2 oz. of mixed preserved vegetables to any
of the above receipts.
Put in a stewpan
a fowl, 3 pints of water, 2 teaspoonfuls of rice, 1 teaspoonful of
salt, a middle-sized onion, or 2 oz. of mixed vegetables; boil the
whole gently for three-quarters of an hour: if an old fowl, simmer
from one hour and a half to two hours, adding 1 pint more water; skim
off the fat and serve. A small fowl will do.
Note.--A light mutton
broth may be made precisely the same, by using a pound and a half of
scrag of mutton instead of fowl. For thick mutton broth proceed as for
thick beef tea, omitting the rice; a tablespoonful of burnt sugar
water will give a rich color to the broth.
Put two quarts
of water in a stewpan, with a teaspoonful of salt; when boiling, add
to it 1/2 lb. of rice, well washed; boil for ten minutes, or till each
grain becomes rather soft; drain it into a colander, slightly grease
the pot with butter, and put the rice back into it; let it swell
slowly for about twenty minutes near the fire, or in a slow oven; each
grain will then swell up, and be well separated; it is then ready for
Add to the plain
boiled rice 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little
cinnamon, a quarter of a pint of milk; stir it with a fork, and serve;
a little currant jelly or jam may be added to the rice.
Add to the rice
4 tablespoonfuls of the essence of beef, a little butter, if fresh,
half a teaspoonful of salt; stir together with a fork, and serve.
teaspoonful of Soyer's Sultana Sauce, or relish, will make it very
wholesome and palatable, as well as invigorating to a fatigued
Put in a pan 1/4
lb. of oatmeal, 1 1/2 oz. of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt, and 3
pints of water; boil slowly for twenty minutes, "stirring
continually," and serve. A quarter of a pint of boiled milk, an
ounce of butter, and a little pounded cinnamon or spice added previous
to serving is a good variation. This receipt has been found most
useful at the commencement of dysentery by the medical authorities.
Put in a
proper-sized stewpan 2 1/4 oz. of calves-foot gelatine, 4 oz. of white
sugar, 4 whites of eggs and shells, the peel of a lemon, the juice of
three middle-sized lemons, half a pint of Marsala wine; beat all well
together with the egg-beater for a few minutes, then add 4 1/2 pints of
cold water; set it on a slow fire, and keep whipping it till boiling.
Set it on the corner of the stove, partly covered with the lid, upon
which you place a few pieces of burning charcoal; let it simmer
gently for ten minutes, and strain it through a jelly-bag. It is then
ready to put in the ice or some cool place. Sherry will do if Marsala
is not at hand. For orange jelly use only 1 lemon and 2 oranges.
delicate flavor may be introduced.
made from calves' feet, requires to be made the day previous to being
used, requiring to be very hard to extract the fat. Take two calf's
feet, cut them up, and boil in three quarts of water; as soon as it
boils remove it to the corner of the fire, and simmer for five hours,
keeping it skimmed, pass through a hair sieve into a basin, and let it
remain until quite hard, then remove the oil and fat, and wipe the top
dry. Place in a stewpan half a pint of water, one of sherry, half a
pound of lump sugar, the juice of flour lemons, the rinds of two, and
the whites and shells of five eggs; whisk until the sugar is melted,
then add the jelly, place it on the fire, and whisk until boiling,
pass it through a jelly-bag, pouring that back again which comes
through first until quite clear; it is then ready for use, by putting
it in moulds or glasses. Vary the flavor according to fancy.
Put into a pan 3
oz. of sago, 1 1/2 oz. of sugar, half a lemon-peel cut very thin, 1/4
teaspoonful of ground cinnamon, or a small stick of the same; put to
it 3 pints of water and a little salt; boil ten minutes, or rather
longer, stirring continually, until rather thick, then add a little
port, sherry, or Marsala wine; mix well, and serve hot or cold.
Put into a pan 4
oz. of arrowroot, 3 oz. of sugar, the peel of half a lemon, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt,
2 1/2 pints of milk; set it on the fire, stir round
gently, boil for ten minutes, and serve. If no lemons at hand, a
little essence of any kind will do. When short of milk, use half
water; half an ounce of fresh butter is an improvement before serving.
If required thicker, put a little milk.
Put in a pan 5
oz. of arrowroot, 2 1/2 oz. of white sugar, the peel of half a lemon, a
quarter of a teaspoonful of salt, 4 pints of water; mix all well, set
on the fire, boil for ten minutes; it is then ready. The juice of a
lemon is an improvement; a gill of wine may also be introduced, and
1/2 oz. of calves-foot gelatine previously dissolved in water will be
strengthening. Milk, however, is preferable, if at hand.
Put into a pan 3
oz. of arrowroot, 2 oz. of white sugar, the peel of a lemon, 1/4
teaspoonful of salt, 4 pints of water; mix well, set on the fire, boil
for ten minutes. It is then ready to serve either hot or cold.
Put 7 pints of
water to boil, add to it 2 ounces of rice washed, 2 oz. of sugar, the
peel of two-thirds of a lemon; boil gently for three- quarters of an
hour; it will reduce to 5 pints; strain through a colander; it is then
ready. The rice may be left in the beverage or made into a pudding, or
by the addition of a little sugar or jam, will be found very good for
either children or invalids.
Put in a
saucepan 7 pints of water, 2 oz. of barley, which stir now and then
while boiling; add 2 oz. of white sugar, the rind of half a lemon,
thinly peeled; let it boil gently for about two hours, without
covering it; pass it through a sieve or colander; it is then ready.
The barley and lemon may be left in it.
Thinly peel the
third part of a lemon, which put into a basin with 2 tablespoonfuls of
sugar; roll the lemon with your hand upon the table to soften it; cut
it into two, lengthwise, squeeze the juice over the peel, &c.,
stir round for a minute with a spoon to form a sort of syrup; pour
over a pint of water, mix well, and remove the pips; it is then ready
for use. If a very large lemon, and full of juice, and very fresh, you
may make a pint and a half to a quart, adding sugar and peel in
proportion to the increase of water. The juice only of the lemon and
sugar will make lemonade, but will then be deprived of the aroma which
the rind contains, the said rind being generally thrown away.
20.---SEMI-CITRIC LEMONADE. RECEIPT FOR 50 PINTS.
Put 1 oz. of
citric acid to dissolve in a pint of water, peel 20 lemons thinly, and
put the peel in a large vessel, with 3 lbs. 2 oz. of white sugar well
broken; roll each lemon on the table to soften it, which will
facilitate the extraction of the juice; cut them into two, and press
out the juice into a colander or sieve, over the peel and sugar, then
pour half a pint of water through the colander, so as to leave no
juice remaining; triturate the sugar, juice, and peel together for a
minute or two with a spoon, so as to form a sort of syrup, and extract
the aroma from the peel and the dissolved citric acid; mix all well
together, pour on 50 pints of cold water, stir well together; it is
then ready. A little ice in summer is a great addition.
CHEAP CRIMEAN LEMONADE.
Put into a basin
2 tablespoonfuls of white or brown sugar, 1/2 a tablespoonful of lime
juice, mix well together for one minute, add 1 pint of water, and the
beverage is ready. A drop of rum will make a good variation, as lime
juice and rum are daily issued to the soldiers.
Dissolve 1 oz.
of crystallized tartaric acid in a pint of cold water, which put in a
large vessel; when dissolved, add 1 lb. 9 oz. of white or brown
former is preferable; mix well to form a thick syrup; add to it 24
pints of cold water, slowly mixing well; it is then ready. It may be
strained through either a colander or a jelly-bag; if required very
light, add 5 pints more water, and sugar in proportion; if citric acid
be used, put only 20 pints of water to each ounce.
PLAIN RICE PUDDING, FOR CAMPAIGNING, in which no eggs
or milk are required: important in the field.
Put on the fire, in a
moderate-sized saucepan, 12 pints of water; when boiling, add to it 1
lb. of rice or 16 tablespoonfuls, 4 oz. of brown sugar or 4
tablespoonfuls, 1 large teaspoonful of salt, and the rind of a lemon
thinly peeled; boil gently for half an hour, then strain all the water
from the rice, keeping it as dry as possible. The rice water is then
ready for drinking, either warm or cold. The juice of a lemon may be
introduced, which will make it more palatable and refreshing.
to the rice 3 oz. of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, half a
teaspoonful of pounded cinnamon; stir it on the fire carefully for
five or ten minutes; put it in a tin or pie-dish, and bake. By boiling
the rice a quarter of an hour longer, it will be very good to eat
without baking. Cinnamon may be omitted.
Break two fresh
eggs in a basin, beat them well, add one tablespoonful and a half of
flour, which beat up with your eggs with a fork until no lumps remain;
add a gill of milk, a teaspoonful of salt, butter a teacup or a basin,
pour in your mixture, put some water in a stewpan, enough to immerge
half way up the cup or basin in water; when boiling, put in your cup
or basin and boil twenty minutes, or till your pudding is well set;
pass a knife to loosen it, turn out on a plate, pour pounded sugar and
a pat of fresh butter over, and serve. A little lemon, cinnamon, or a
drop of any essence may be introduced. A little light melted butter,
sherry, and sugar may be poured over. If required more delicate, add a
little less flour. It may be served plain.
tart-dish well and sprinkle some currants all round it, then lay in a
few slices of bread and butter; boil one pint of milk, pour it on two
eggs well whipped, and then on the bread and butter; bake it in a hot
oven for half an hour. Currants may be omitted.
Boil one pint of
milk, with a plece of cinnamon and lemon-peel; pour it on two ounces
of bread crumbs; then add two eggs, half an ounce of currants, and a
little sugar: Steam it in a buttered mould for one hour.
Boil one pint of
milk, with a small piece of lemon-peel and half a bay-leaf, for three
minutes; then pour these on to three eggs, mix it with one ounce of
sugar well together, and pour it into a buttered mould: steam it
twenty-five minutes in a stewpan with some water, turn out on a plate
No. 27.---RICH RICE
Put in 1/2 lb. of
rice in a stewpan, washed, 3 pints of milk, 1 pint of water, 3 oz. of
sugar, 1 lemon peel, 1 oz. of fresh butter; boil gently half an hour,
or until the rice is tender; add 4 eggs, well beaten, mix well, and
bake quickly for half an hour, and serve: it may be steamned if
Put in a stewpan
2 quarts of water, half a tablespoonful of salt, 2 oz. of butter; set
on the fire; when boiling, add 1 lb. of macaroni, broken up rather
small; when boiled very soft, throw off the water; mix well into the
macaroni a tablespoonful of flour, add enough milk to make it of the
consistency of thin melted butter; boil gently twenty minutes; add in
a tablespoonful of either brown or white sugar, or honey, and serve.
little cinnamon, nutmeg, lemon-peel, or orange-flower water may be
introduced to impart a flavor; stir quick. A gill of milk or cream may
now be thrown in three minutes before serving. Nothing can be more
light and nutritious than macaroni done this way. If no milk, use
Put 2 pints of
water to boil, add to it 2 oz. of macaroni, broken in small pieces;
boil till tender, drain off the water and add half a tablespoonful of
flour, 2 oz. of white sugar, a quarter of a pint of milk, and boil
together for ten minutes; beat an egg up, pour it to the other
ingredients, a nut of butter; mix well and bake, or steam. It can be
served plain, and may be flavored with either cinnamon, lemon, or
other essences, as orange-flower water, vanilla, &c.
Put in a pan 4
oz. of sago, 2 oz. of sugar, half a lemon-peel or a little cinnamon, a
small pat of fresh butter, if handy, half a pint of milk; boil for a
few minutes, or until rather thick, stirring all the while; beat up 2
eggs and mix quickly with the same; it is then ready for either baking
or steaming, or may be served plain.
Put in a pan 2
oz. of tapioca, 1 1/2 pint of milk, 1 oz. of white or brown sugar, a
little salt, set on the fire, boil gently for fifteen minutes, or
until the tapioca is tender, stirring now and then to prevent its
sticking to the bottom, or burning; then add two eggs well beaten;
steam or bake, and serve. It will take about twenty minutes steaming,
or a quarter of an hour baking slightly. Flavor with either lemon,
cinnamon, or any other essence.
RICE SEMI-CURRIED, FOR THE PREMONITORY SYMPTOMS OF DIARRIHEA.
Put 1 quart of
water in a pot or saucepan; when boiling, wash a 1/2 lb. of rice and throw
it into the water; boil fast for ten minutes; drain your rice in a
colander, put it back in the saucepan, which you have slightly greased
with butter; let it swell slowly near the fire, or in a slow oven till
tender; each grain will then be light and well separated. Add to the
above a small tablespoonful of aromatic sauce, called "Soyer's
Relish or Sultana Sauce," with a quarter of a teaspoonful of
curry powder; mix together with a fork lightly, and serve. This
quantity will be sufficient for two or three people, accord ing to the
prescriptions of the attending physician.
Enave 2 quarts
of water boiling, into which throw 6 dry figs previously opened, and 2
apples, cut into six or eight slices each; let the whole boil together
twenty minutes; then pour them into a basin to cool; pass through a
sieve; drain the figs, which will be good to eat with a little sugar
Put 12 large or
18 small-size French plums, soak them for half an hour, put in a
stewpan with a spoonful of brown sugar, a gill of water, a little
cinnamon, and some thin rind of lemon; let them stew gently twenty
minutes, then put them in a basin till cold with a little of the
juice. A small glass of port, sherry, or claret is a very good
addition. The syrup is excellent.
35.---FRENCH HERB BROTH.
This is a very
favorite beverage in France, as well with people in health as with
invalids, especially in spring, when the herbs are young and green.
Put a quart of water to boil, having previously prepared about 40
leaves of sorrel, a cabbage lettuce, and 10 sprigs of chervil, the
whole well washed; when the water is boiling, throw in the herbs, with
the addition of a teaspoonful of salt, and l/4 oz. of fresh butter;
cover the saucepan close, and let simmer a few minutes, then strain
it through a sieve or colander. This is to be drunk cold, especially
in the spring of the year, after the change from winter. I generally
drink about a quart per day for a week at that time; but if for sick
people, it must be made less strong of herbs, and taken a little warm.
To prove that it is wholesome, we have only to refer to the instinct
which teaches dogs to eat grass at that season of the year. I do not
pretend to say that it would suit persons in every malady, because the
doctors are to decide upon the food and beverage of their patients,
and study its changes as well as change their medicines; but I repeat
that this is most useful and refreshing for the blood.
FOR SOUPS, &C.
Put 1/4 lb. of
moist sugar into an iron pan and melt it over a moderate fire till
quite black, stirring it continually, which will take about
twenty-five minutes: it must color by degrees, as too sudden a heat
will make it bitter; then add 2 quarts of water, and in ten minutes
the sugar will be dissolved. You may then bottle it for use.
keep good for a month, and will always be found very useful.
Cut a piece of
crusty bread, about a 1/4 lb. in weight, place it upon a toasting-fork,
and hold it about six inches from the fire; turn it often, and keep
moving it gently until of a light-yellow color, then place it nearer
the fire, and when of a good brown chocolate color, put it in a jug
and pour over 3 pints of boiling water; cover the jug until cold, then
strain it into a clean jug, and it is ready for use. Never leave the
toast in it, for in summer it would cause fermentation in a short
Baked Apple Toast-and-Water.---A piece of
apple, slowly toasted till it gets quite black and added to the above,
makes a very nice and refreshing drink for invalids.
Apple Rice Water.---Half a pound of
rice, boiled in the above until in pulp, passed through a colander,
and drunk when cold. All kinds of fruit may be done the same way.
and French plums are excellent; also raisins. A little ginger, if
approved of, may be used.
Apple Barley Water.---A quarter of a
pound of pearl barley instead of toast added to the above, and boil
for one hour, is also a very nice drink.
Citronade.---Put a gallon of
water on to boil, cut up one pound of apples, each one into quarters,
two lemons in thin slices, put them in the water, and boil them until
they can be pulped, pass the liquor through a colander, boil it up
again. with half a pound of brown sugar, skim, and bottle for use,
taking care not to cork the bottle, and keep it in a cool place.
For Spring Drink.---Rhubarb, in the same
quantities, and done in the same way as apples, adding more sugar, is
very cooling. Also green gooseberries.
For Summer Drink.---One pound of
red currants, bruised with some raspberry, half a pound of sugar added
to a gallon of cold water, well stirred, and allowed to settle. The
juice of a lemon.
Mulberry.---The same, adding
a little lemon-peel. A little cream of tartar or citric acid added to
these renders them more cooling in summer and spring.
Plain Lemonade.---Cut in very thin
slices three lemons, put them in a basin, add half a pound of sugar,
either white or brown; bruise all together, add a gallon of water, and
stir well. It is then ready.
French Plum Water.---Boil 3 pints of
water; add in 6 or 8 dried plums previously split, 2 or 3 slices of
lemon, a spoonful of honey or sugar; boil half an hour, and serve.
For Fig, Date, and
Raisin Water, proceed as
above, adding the juice of half a lemon to any of the above. If for
fig water, use 6 figs. Any quantity of the above fruits may be used
with advantage in rice, barley, or arrowroot water.
Raspberry Water.---Put 2
tablespoonfuls of vinegar into a large glass, pour in half a pint of
water; mix well.
Pine-Apple Syrup.---Three tablespoonfuls to a pint.
Currant Syrup.---Proceed the same.
Syrup of Orgeat.---The same.
COOKERY for the ARMY, by the USE of SOYER'S NEW FIELD STOVE, NOW ADOPTED
by the MILITARY AUTHORITIES (1856)
|Each stove will
consume not more than from 12 to 15 lbs. of fuel, and allow ing 20
stoves to a regiment, the consumption would be 300 lbs. per thousand
men. Coal will burn with the same advantage.
pork, Irish stew, stewed beef, tea, coffee, cocoa, &c., can be
prepared in these stoves, and with the same economy.
also be fitted with an apparatus for baking, roasting, and steaming.
No. 1.---RECEIPT TO COOK SALT MEAT FOR 50 MEN
1. Put 50
lbs. of meat in the boiler.
with water, and let soak all night.
morning wash the meat well
with fresh water, and boil gently three hours, and serve. Skim
off the fat, which, when cold, is an excellent substitute for butter.
For salt pork
proceed as above or boil half beef--and half pork--the pieces of beef
may be smaller than the pork, requiring a little longer time doing.
21), may be added to either pork, or beef in proportion; and when pork
is properly soaked, the liquor will make a very good soup.
The large yellow
peas, as used by the navy, may be introduced; it is important to have
them, as they are a great improvement.
soaked, French haricot beans and lentils may also be used to
By the addition
of 5 pounds of split peas, half a pound of brown sugar, 2
tablespoonfuls of pepper, 10 onions; simmer gently till in pulp,
remove the fat and serve; broken biscuit may be introduced. This
will make an excellent mess.
No. 1A.---How TO SOAK AND PLAIN-BOIL THE RATIONS OF SALT BEEF AND PORK, ON LAND OR
To each pound of
meat allow about a pint of water. Do not have the pieces above 3
or 4 lbs. in weight. Let it soak for 7 or 8 hours, or all night
if possible. Wash each piece well with your hand in order to
extract as much salt as possible. It is then ready for
cooking. If less time be allowed, cut the pieces smaller and
proceed the same, or parboil the meat for 20 minutes in the above
quantity of water, which throw off and add fresh. Meat may be
soaked in sea water, but by all means boiled in fresh when
possible. I should advise, at sea, to have a perforated iron box
made, large enough to contain half a ton or more of meat, which box
will ascend and descend by pulleys; have also a frame made on which
the box might rest when lowered overboard, the meat being placed
outside the ship on a level with the water, the night before using;
the water beating against the meat through the perforations will
extract all the salt. Meat may be soaked in sea water, but by
all means washed.
NO 2.---SOYER'S ARMY SOUP FOR 50 MEN.
1. Put in the
boiler 60 pints, 71/2 gallons, or 5 1/2 camp kettles of water.
2. Add to it 50
lbs. of meat, either beef or mutton.
3. The rations
of preserved or fresh vegetables.
4. Ten small
tablespoonfuls of salt.
5. Simmer three
hours and serve.
When rice is issued, put it in when boiling. Three
pounds will be sufficient. About eight pounds of fresh vegetables. Or
four squares from a cake of preserved vegetables. A tablespoonful of
pepper, if handy. Skim off the fat, which, when cold, is an excellent
substitute for butter.
No. 2A.---SALT PORK WITH MASHED PEAS, FOR 100 MEN.
Put in two
stoves 50 lbs. of pork each, divide 24 lbs. in four puddingcloths,
rather loosely tied; putting to boil at the same time as your pork,
let all boil gently till done, say about two hours; take out the
pudding and peas, put all the meat in one caldron, remove the liquor
from the other pan, turning back the peas in it, add two teaspoonfuls
of pepper, a pound of the fat, and with the wooden spatula smash the
peas and serve both. The addition of about half a pound of flour, and
two quarts of liquor, boiled ten minutes, makes a great improvement.
Six sliced onions, fried and added to it, make it very delicate.
BEEF AND PORK.
For a company of
one hundred men, or a regiment of one thousand men. Put in a boiler,
of well soaked beef 30 lbs., cut in pieces of a quarter of a pound
each, 20 lbs. of pork, 1 1/2 lb. of sugar, 8 lbs. of onions, sliced, 25
quarts of water, 4 lbs. of rice. Simmer gently for three hours, skim
the fat off the top, and serve.
Note.--How to soak the meat for the
above mess:---Put 50 lbs. of meat in each boiler, having filled them
with water, and let soak all night; and prior to using it, wash it and
squeeze with your hands, to extract the salt. In case the meat is
still too salt, boil it for twenty minutes, throw away the water, and
put fresh to your stew. By closely following the above receipt you
will have an excellent dish.
FOOD FOR 100 MEN, USING TWO STOVES.
Cut or chop 50
lbs. of fresh beef in pieces of about 1/4 lb. each; put in the
boiler, with 10 tablespoonfuls of salt, two tablespoonfuls of pepper,
four tablespoonfuls of sugar, onions 7 lbs. cut in slices: light the
fire now, and then stir the meat with a spatula, let it stew from 20
to 30 minutes, or till it forms a thick gravy, then add a pound and a
half of flour; mix well together, put in the boiler 18 quarts of
water, stir well for a minute or two, regulate the stove to a moderate
heat, and let simmer for about two hours. Mutton, pork, or veal can be
stewed in a similar manner, but will take half an hour less cooking.
Note.---A pound of rice may be added with great advantage, ditto plain
dumplings, ditto potatoes, as well as mixed vegetables. For a
of 1,000 men use 20 stoves.
STEW FOR 50 MEN.
Cut 50 lbs. of
mutton into pieces of a quarter of a pound each, put them in the pan,
add 8 lbs. of large onions, 12 lbs. of whole potatoes, 8
tablespoonfuls of salt, 3 tablespoonfuls of pepper; cover all with
water, giving about half a pint to each pound; then light the fire;
one hour and a half of gentle ebullition will make a most excellent
stew; mash some of the potatoes to thicken the gravy, and serve. Fresh
beef, veal, or pork will also make a good stew. Beef takes two hours
doing. Dumplings may beadded half an hour before done.
6.---To Cook FOR
A REGIMENT OF 1000 MEN.
stoves in a row, in the open air or under cover. Put 30 quarts of
water in each boiler, 50 lbs. of ration meat, 4 squares from a cake of
dried vegetables--or, if fresh mixed vegetables are issued, 12 lbs.
weight--10 small tablespoonfuls of salt, 1 ditto of pepper; light the
fire, simmer gently from two hours to two hours and a half, skim the
fat from the top, and serve. It will require only four cooks per
regiment, the provisions and water being carried to the kitchen by
fatigue parties; the kitchen being central, instead of the kitchen
going to each company, each company sends two men to the kitchen with
a pole to carry the meat.
AND PUDDINGS WITH CABBAGE AND POTATOES.
Put 25 lbs. of
salt pork in each boiler, with 50 lbs. from which you have extracted
the large bones, cut in dice, and made into puddings; when on the
boil, put five puddings in each, boil rather fast for two hours. You
have peeled 12 lbs. of potatoes and put in a net in each caldron; put
also 2 winter cabbages in nets, three-quarters of an hour before your
pudding is done; divide the pork, pudding, and cabbage, in proportion,
or let fifty of the men have pudding that day and meat the other;
remove the fat, and serve. The liquor will make very good soup by
adding peas or rice, as No. 1. For the pudding paste put one-quarter
of a pound of dripping, or beef or mutton suet, to every pound of
flour you use; roll your paste for each half an inch thick, put a
pudding-cloth in a basin, flour round, lay in your paste, add your
meat in proportion; season with pepper and a minced onion; close your
pudding in a cloth, and boil. This receipt is more applicable to
barrack and public institutions than a camp. Fresh meat of any kind
may be done the same, and boiled with either salt pork or beef.
PILAFF FOR 100 MEN.
Put in the
caldron 2 lbs. of fat, which you have saved from salt pork, add to it
4 lbs. of peeled and sliced onions; let them fry in the fat for about
ten minutes; add in then 12 lbs. of rice, cover the rice over with
water, the rice being submerged two inches, add to it 7 tablespoonfuls
of salt, and 1 of pepper; let simmer gently for about an hour,
stirring it with a spatula occasionally to prevent it burning, but
when commencing to boil, a very little fire ought to be kept under.
Each grain ought to be swollen to the full size of rice, and separate.
In the other stove put fat and onions the same quantity with the same
seasoning; cut the flesh of the mutton, veal, pork, or beef from the
bone, cut in dice of about 2 oz. each, put in the pan with the fat and
onions, set it going with a very sharp fire, having put in 2 quarts of
water; steam gently, stirring occasionally for about half an hour,
till forming rather a rich thick gravy. When both the rice and meat
are done, take half the rice and mix with the meat, and then the
remainder of the meat and rice, and serve. Save the bones for soup for
the following day. Salt pork or beef, well soaked, may be
used--omitting the salt. Any kind of vegetables may be frizzled with
ROASTING WITH THE FIELD STOVE.
By the removal
of the caldron, and the application of a false bottom put over the
fire, bread bakes extremely well in the oven, as well as meat,
potatoes, puddings, &c. Bread might be baked in oven at every
available op portunity at a trifling cost of fuel. The last experiment
I made with one was a piece of beef weighing about 25 lbs., a large
Yorkshire pudding, and about 10 lbs. of potatoes, the whole doing at
considerably under one pennyworth of fuel, being a mixture of coal and
coke; the whole was done to perfection, and of a nice brown color. Any
kind of meat would, of course, roast the same.
Baking in fixed Oven.---In barracks, or
large institutions, where an oven is handy, I would recommend that a
long iron trough be made, four feet in length, with a two-story
movable grating in it, the meat on the top of the upper one giving a
nice elevation to get the heat from the roof, and the potatoes on the
grating under, and a Yorkshire pud ding at the bottom. Four or five
pieces of meat may be done on one trough. If no pudding is made, add a
quart more water.
BEEF SOUP, OR POT-AU-FEU, CAMP FASHION, FOR THE ORDINARY CANTEEN-PAN.
Put in the
canteen saucepan 6 lbs. of beef, cut in two or three pieces, bones
included; 3/4 lb. of plain mixed vegetables, as onions, carrots,
turnips, celery, leeks, or such of these as can be obtained, or 3 oz.
of preserved in cakes, as now given to the troops; 3 teaspoonfuls of
salt, 1 teaspoonful of pepper, 1 teaspoonful of sugar, if handy; 8
pints of water, let it boil gently three hours, remove some of the
fat, and serve. The addition of 1 1/2 lb. of bread cut into slices, or 1
lb. of broken biscuit, well soaked in the broth, will make a very
nutritious soup; skimming is not required.
11.---SEMI-FRYING, CAMP FASHION, CHOPS, STEAKS, AND ALL KINDS OF MEAT.
If it is
difficult to broil to perfection, it is considerably more so to cook
meat of any kind in a frying-pan. Place your pan on the fire for a
minute or so, wipe it very clean; when the pan is very hot, add in it
either fat or butter, but the fat from salt and ration meat is
preferable; the fat will immediately get very hot; then add the meat
you are going to cook, turn it several times to have it equally done;
season to each pound a small teaspoonful of salt, quarter that of
pepper, and serve. Any sauce or maξtre-d'hτtel butter may be added. A
few fried onions in the remaining fat, with the addition of a little
flour to the onion, a quarter of a pint of water, two tablespoonfuls
of vinegar, a few chopped pickles or picalilly, will be very relishing.
80 MEN, which often
constitutes a whole company.
One boiler will, with ease, make tea for
eighty men, allowing a pint each man. Put forty quarts of water to
boil, place the rations of tea in a fine net, very loose, or in a
large perforated ball; give one minute to boil, take out the fire, if
too much, shut down the cover; in ten minutes it is ready to serve.
LA ZOUAVE FOR A MESS OF 10 SOLDIERS, as made in the
camp, with the canteen saucepan holding 10 pints.
Put 9 pints of water
into a canteen saucepan on the fire; when boiling add 7 1/2 oz. of
coffee, which forms the ration, mix them well together with a spoon or
a piece of wood, leave on the fire for a few minutes longer, or until
just beginning to boil. Take it off and pour in 1 pint of cold water,
let the whole remain for ten minutes or a little longer. The dregs of
the coffee will fall to the bottom, and your coffee will be clear.
Pour it from one vessel to the other, leaving the dregs at the bottom,
add your ration sugar or 2 teaspoonfuls to the pint; if any milk is to
be had, make 2 pints of coffee less; add that quantity of milk to your
coffee, the former may be boiled previously, and serve. This is a very
good way for making coffee even in any family, especially a numerous
one, using 1 oz. to the quart if required stronger. For a company of
eighty men use the field-stove and four times the quantity of
When the water
is about to boil add the coffee and sugar, mix well as above, let it
boil, and serve. The grounds of coffee will in a few seconds fall to
the bottom of the cups. The Turks wisely leave it there, I would
advise every one in camp to do the same.
portions of ration cocoa in rather small pieces, put them in the
boiler, with five or six pints of water, light the fire, stir the
cocoa round till melted, and forming a pulp not too thick, preventing
any lumps forming, add to it the remaining water, hot or cold; add the
ration sugar, and when just boiling, it is ready for serving. If short
of cocoa in campaigning, put about sixty rations, and when in pulp,
add half a pound of flour or arrowroot.
EASY AND EXCELLENT
WAY OF COOKING IN EARTHEN PANS.
A very favorite
and plain dish amongst the convalescent and orderlies at Scutari was the
Cut any part of
either beef (cheek or tail), veal, mutton, or pork, in fact any hard
part of the animal, in 4-oz. slices; have ready for each 4 or 5 onions
and 4 or 5 pounds of potatoes cut in slices; put a layer of potatoes
at the bottom of the pan, then a layer of meat, season to each pound 1
teaspoonful of salt, quarter one of pepper, and some onion you have
already minced; then lay in layers of meat and potatoes alternately
till full; put in 2 pints of water, lay on the lid, close the bar,
lock the pot, bake two hours, and serve. Remove some of the fat from
the top, if too much; a few dumplings, as No. 21, in it will also be
found excellent. By adding over each layer a little flour it makes a
rich thick sauce. Half fresh meat and salt ditto will also be found
SERIES OF SMALL
RECEIPTS FOR A SQUAD, OUTPOST, OR PICKET OF MEN, which may be
increased in proportion of companies.
Put half a pound
of salt pork in a saucepan, two ounces of rice, two pints and a half
of cold water, and, when boiling, let simmer another hour, stirring
once or twice; break in six ounces of biscuit, let soak ten minutes;
it is then ready, adding one teaspoonful of sugar, and a quarter one
of pepper, if handy.
above, boil an hour longer, adding a pint more water.
can obtain any of the following vegetables will find them a great
improvement to the above soups:
-Add four ounces of either onions,
carrots, celery, turnips, leeks, greens, cabbage, or potatoes,
previously well washed or peeled, or any of these mixed to make up
four ounces, putting them in the pot with the meat. I have used the
green tops of leeks and the leaf of celery as well as the stem, and
found that for stewing they are preferable to the white part for
The meat being generally salted with rock salt, it ought to be
well scraped and washed, or even soaked in water a few hours if
convenient; but if the last cannot be done, and the meat is therefore
too salt, which would spoil the broth, parboil it for twenty minutes
in water, before using for soup, taking care to throw this water away.
beef proceed, as far
as the cooking goes, as for salt beef, adding a teaspoonful of salt to
Put in your pot
half a pound of salt pork, half a pint of peas, three pints of water,
one teaspoonful of sugar, half one of pepper, four ounces of
vegetables, cut in slices, if to be had; boil gently two hours, or
until the peas are tender, as some require boiling longer than
Fresh Beef and Rice.
Put an ounce of
fat in a pot, cut half a pound of meat in large dice, add a
teaspoonful of salt, half one of sugar, all onion sliced; put on the
fire to stew for fifteen minutes, stirring occasionally, then add two
ounces of rice, a pint of water; stew gently till done, and serve. Any
savory herb will improve the flavor. Fresh pork, veal, or mutton may
be done the same way, and half a pound of potatoes used instead of the
rice, and as rations are served out for three days, the whole of the
provisions may be cooked at once.
FOR THE FRYING-PAN.
Those who are
fortunate enough to possess a frying-pan will find the following
receipts very useful:-
Cut in small
dice half a pound of solid meat, keeping the bones for soup; put your
pan, which should be quite clean, on the fire; when hot through, add
an ounce of fat, melt it and put in the meat, season with half a
teaspoonful of salt; fry for ten minutes, stirring now and then; add a
teaspoonful of flour, mix all well, put in half a pint of water, let
simmer for fifteen minutes, pour over a biscuit previously soaked, and
serve. The addition of a little pepper and sugar, if handy, is an
improvement, as is also a pinch of cayenne, curry powder or spice;
sauces and pickles used in small quantities would be very relishing;
these are articles which will keep for any length of time. As fresh
meat is not easily obtained, any of the cold salt meat may be dressed
as above, omitting the salt, and only requires warming; or, for a
change, boil the meat plainly, or with greens, or cabbage, or
dumplings, as for beef; then the next day cut what is left in small
dice--say four ounces--put in a pan an ounce of fat; when very hot pour
in the following:
-Mix in a basin a tablespoonful of flour, moisten
with water to form the consistency of thick melted butter, then pour
it in the pan, letting it remain for one or two minutes, or until
set; put in the meat, shake the pan to loosen it, turn it over, let
it remain a few minutes longer, and serve.
To cook bacon, chops,
steaks, slices of any kind of meat, salt or fresh sausages, black
Make the pan very hot, having wiped it clean, add
in fat, dripping, butter, or oil, about an ounce of either; put in the
meat, turn three or four times, and season with salt and pepper. A few
minutes will do it. If the meat is salt, it must be well soaked
Take half a
pound of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter teaspoonful of
pepper, a quarter of a pound of chopped fat pork or beef suet, eight
tablespoonfuls of water, mixed well together. It will form a thick
paste, and when formed, divide it into six or eight pieces, which roll
in flour, and boil with the meat for twenty minutes to half an hour.
Little chopped onion or aromatic herbs will give it a flavor.
plainer way, when Fat is not to be obtained.--Put the same quantity of
flour and seasoning in a little more water, and make it softer, and
divide it into sixteen pieces; boil about ten minutes. Serve round the
meat. One plain pudding may be made of the above, also peas and rice
pudding thus:--One pound of peas well tied in a cloth, or rice ditto
with the beef. It will form a good pudding. The following in gredients
may be added: a little salt, sugar, pepper, chopped onions, aromatic
herbs, and two ounces of chopped fat will make these puddings
palatable and delicate